Abbasidikalifaatti

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Abbasidien Kalifaatti
arab. ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎, al-Khilāfatu al-ʿAbbāsiyyah
750–1258
1261–1517
Abbassid banner.svg
lippu

Abbasidikalifaatti suurimmillaan (n.850)
Abbasidikalifaatti suurimmillaan (n.850)

kalifi As-Saffah (750–754),
Al-Musta'sim (1242–1258),
al-Mutawakkil III (1508–1517)
Pääkaupunki Anbar[1],
kufa (750–762),
Bagdad (762–796, 809–836, 892–1258),
Raqqa (796–809),
Samarra (836–892),
Kairo (1261–1517)
Uskonnot Sunnalaisuus
Kielet arabia
Edeltäjä(t) Umaijadien kalifaatti
Seuraaja(t) Fatimidit, Saffaridit, Aghlabidit, Mongolivaltakunta, Osmanien valtakunta

Abbasidikalifaatti (arab. ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎, al-Khilāfatu al-ʿAbbāsiyyah) oli kolmas Islamilainen kalifaatti. Sen perusti Muhammedin sedän Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalibin (566-653) – jonka mukaan kalifaatti on nimetty – perillinen.[2] Abbasidit hallitsivat suurinta osaa kalifaattia pääkaupungistaan Bagdadista käsin kalifeina kaadettuaan Umaijadien kalifaatin vuonna 750 päättyneessä Abbasidien vallankumouksessa.

Abbasidikalifaatin hallinto keskitettiin aluksi Kufaan, mutta vuonna 762 kalifi Al-Mansur perusti Bagdadin kaupungin lähelle muinaisen Sasanian pääkaupunkia Ktesifonia. Abbasidien ajanjaksoa leimasi riippuvuus Persian byrokraattien (erityisesti Barmakid-suvun) hallitsemista alueista sekä arabimaiden ulkopuolisten muslimien lisääntyvä määrä ummassa (islamin uskovien yhteisö). Hallitseva eliitti omaksui laajasti persialaiset tavat ja he alkoivatkin tukemaan taiteilijoita ja oppineita.[3] Bagdadista tuli tieteen, kulttuurin, filosofian ja keksintöjen keskus. Nykyään tätä aikaa kutsutaan islamin kulta-ajaksi.

Historia[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

Abbasidien vallankumous[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

Pääartikkeli: Abbasidien vallankumous
Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah julistetaan ensimmäiseksi Abbasidikalifiksi. Sivu 1300-luvun alun kirjasta.

Id al-Fitrin päivänä 15. kesäkuuta 747 Abu Muslim tukijoineen heiluttivat mustia lippuja alkaneen vallankumouksen merkiksi. Hän otti koko Khorasanin pian valtaansa, karkotti sen umaijadikuvernöörin Nasr ibn Sayyarin ja lähetti armeijan länteen. Kufa joutui Hashimiyya-liikkeelle vuonna 749 ja samalla piiritettiin Wasit, viimeinen Umaijadien tukikohta. Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah tunnustettiin uudeksi kalifiksi Kufan moskeijassa samana vuonna. Samaan aikaan Merwan II keräsi armeijan ja marssi kohti Irakia. Joukot kohtasivat Zab-joen varrella 25. tammikuuta 750 ja taistelu päättyi Abu al-Abbasin voittoon. Huhtikuussa Damaskos antautui Abbasideille, ja viimeinen naula arkkuun oli, kun abbasidi-agentit murhasivat Merwan II:n Egyptissä elokuussa.

Voittajat häpäisivät Syyriassa olleet Umaijadien haudat, joista säästettiin vain Omar II:n hauta. Suurin osa suvun jäsenistä jäljitettiin ja tapettiin kuten Merwanin. Abbasidit käyttivät tähän tylyä juonta: He julistivat armahduksen lopuille umaijadeille, joista 80 kerääntyi ottamaan armahduksen vastaan, mutta heidät murhattiinkin. Yksi Hishamin pojanpojista, Abd ar-Rahman I, selviytyi takaa-ajoista ja murhajuonista. Hän perusti Al-Andalusin kuningaskunnan Iberiaan ja julisti perheensä uudeksi Umaijjadien kalifaatiksi.

Charles W. Previté-Orton esittää, että syy Umaijjadien kalifaatin heikkenemiseen oli islamin nopea leviäminen. Umaijadien valtakaudella joukkokäännytykset toivat persialaisia, berbereitä, kopteja ja aramealaisia islamiin. Nämä "mawalit" olivat usein koulutetumpia ja sivistyneempiä kuin arabiherransa. Uudet käännytetyt saattoivat muuttaa poliittista maisemaa muslimien tasavertaisuuden nimissä. Previté-Ortonin mukaan osuutensa valtakunnan sisäiseen rappeutumiseen oli myös Syyrian ja Irakin välisellä vihanpidolla.

Katso myös[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

Lähteet[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

  1. Iraq, Land of Two Rivers. Gavin Young. Sivu 83
  2. Hoiberg 2010, s. 10.
  3. S. E. Finer: The History of Government from the Earliest Times: Volume II: The Intermediate Ages, s. 720. OUP Oxford, 1999. ISBN 9780198207900. Teoksen verkkoversio. (englanniksi)

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