Jizya

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Jizya-dokumentti 1600-luvulta (Ottomaanien valtakunta).

Jizya on ei-muslimien muslimeille maksama ylimääräinen vero. Ei-muslimi, joka on köyhä tai vanhus, lapsi, nainen ja sairas-mielinen ei tarvinnut maksaa jizyaa[1] Koraani ja perimätieto mainitsevat jizyan ilmoittamatta sen määrää tai hintaa tarkasti.[2]

Historiallisesti jizya-veroa on ymmärretty islamissa maksuna suojelusta, jota muslimien hallitsija tarjoaa ei-muslimeille, ei-muslimeille myönnetystä vapautuksesta sotilaspalvelusta, jotta heillä olisi lupa harjoittaa ei-muslimi-uskoa jonkinlaisen yhteisöllisen autonomian kanssa muslimivaltiossa ja aineellisena todisteena ei-muslimien esittämästä muslimivaltiosta ja sen laeista.[3] [4][5]

Lähteet[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

  1. https://www.britannica.com/topic/jizya
  2. 2. Sabet, Amr (2006), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 24:4, Oxford; pp. 99–100.: '. .
  3. Anver M. Emon, Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199661633, pp. 99–109. ^ Jump up to:a b c
  4. Walker Arnold, Thomas (1913). Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith. Constable & Robinson Ltd. pp. 60–1. This tax was not imposed on the Christians, as some would have us think, as a penalty for their refusal to accept the Muslim faith, but was paid by them in common with the other dhimmīs or non-Muslim subjects of the state whose religion precluded them from serving in the army, in return for the protection secured for them by the arms of the Musalmans.
  5. Esposito 1998, p. 34. "They replaced the conquered countries, indigenous rulers and armies, but preserved much of their government, bureaucracy, and culture. For many in the conquered territories, it was no more than an exchange of masters, one that brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the years of Byzantine-Persian warfare. Local communities were free to continue to follow their own way of life in internal, domestic affairs. In many ways, local populations found Muslim rule more flexible and tolerant than that of Byzantium and Persia. Religious communities were free to practice their faith to worship and be governed by their religious leaders and laws in such areas as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. In exchange, they were required to pay tribute, a poll tax (jizya) that entitled them to Muslim protection from outside aggression and exempted them from military service. Thus, they were called the "protected ones" (dhimmi). In effect, this often meant lower taxes, greater local autonomy, rule by fellow Semites with closer linguistic and cultural ties than the hellenized, Greco-Roman élites of Byzantium, and greater religious freedom for Jews and indigenous Christians."