David Irving

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David Irving.
Irving luentokiertueella Yhdysvalloissa vuonna 2005.

David John Cawdell Irving (s. 24. maaliskuuta 1938) on kiistelty brittiläinen historiaan keskittynyt kirjailija, joka on erityisesti ollut kiinnostunut toisesta maailmansodasta. Hänen 1960- ja 1970-lukujensa sotahistoriateoksensa saavuttivat suuren suosion. Irvingiä on arvostelu väitetyn holokaustin kieltämisen vuoksi, josta hän sai myös tuomion Itävallassa. Irvingin ammatillista uskottavuutta on nykyisin kyseenalaisettu, erityisesti sen jälkeen, kun hän alkoi esittää revisionistista kritiikkiä vallitsevaa historiakäsitystä vastaan. [1].

Sotahistorian kirjoittaja[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

Irvingin ensimmäinen kirja The Destruction of Dresden (1963) käsitteli Dresdenin pommituksia helmikuussa 1945. Keskustelu Saksan kaupunkien ja siviilien pommituksien oikeutuksesta oli jo herännyt, ja Irvingin kirjasta tuli kansainvälinen myyntimenestys. Kirjan esittämä lukema Dresdenin pommitusten uhrien määrästä, 100 000–250 000 oli huomattavasti suurempi kuin aikaisemmat, ja muodostui tiedeyhteisön totuudeksi. Kirjaa ja sen esittämiä lukuja siteerattiin laajalti myös muissa teoksissa. Luvut perustuivat kuitenkin vain yhden haastateltavan arvioon, jolla ei ollut tukevia dokumentteja. Nykyinen arvio Dresdenin kuolonuhrien määrästä on 25 000–40 000, mutta eräät pommituksista selvinneet kaupungin asukkaat ovat pitäneet lukuja liian pieninä.

Kirjallisten töiden tuotto vaikutti kaiken kaikkiaan niin lupaavalta, että Irving jättäytyi parin vuoden opiskelujen jälkeen vapaaksi kirjailijaksi. Hänen tuotantonsa alkupään teoksiin kuuluu V-2, Hitlerin unelma, hyvin brittiläinen näkökulma Saksan ohjuskeskuksen pommituksiin. Syvempi intressi sotaa koskevaan saksalaiseen näkökulmaan sai alkunsa, kun Irving käänsi saksalaisen tiedustelu-upseeri Reinhard Gehlenin muistelmat 1970-luvun alussa. Sittemmin Irvingin kirjoittamat historiikit ovat koskeneet pelkästään natsi-Saksan johtavia hahmoja, esimerkiksi Erwin Rommelia, Rudolf Hessiä ja Hermann Göringiä. Vielä 1980-luvulla hän kirjoitti Adolf Hitlerin sairauskertomuksen, mutta kirjamyynnin hiipuessa hänen teoksensa tulivat kantaaottavammiksi.

Irvingin kirjoista on suomeksi julkaistu V-2, Hitlerin unelma sekä sotamarsalkka Erwin Rommelin elämäkerta Rommel (Kirjayhtymä, 1979). Näissä kirjoissa Irvingin näkemykset holokaustista eivät vielä tulleet esiin.

Vankeus[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

Vuosituhannen vaihteen tienoilla holokaustin tutkija Deborah Lipstadt mainitsi Irvingin olevan yksi vaarallisimmista holokaustin kiistäjistä. Irving haastoi Lipstadtin oikeuteen kunnianloukkauksesta, mutta hävisi paljon julkisuutta saaneen oikeudenkäynnin.[2] Tuomari tuki Lipstadtin näkemyksiä siitä, että Irving on ”aktiivinen holokaustin kieltäjä”, juutalaisvastainen ja rasisti.

Marraskuussa 2005 Itävallan poliisi pidätti Irvingin, ja helmikuussa 2006 hänet tuomittiin Itävallassa kolmeksi vuodeksi vankilaan holokaustin kieltämisestä. David Irving vapautettiin 13 kuukautta kestäneen ehdottoman vankeuden jälkeen 20. joulukuuta 2006 ehdolliseen vankeuteen odottamaan ylemmän oikeusasteen käsittelyä.[3]

Näkemykset ja kirjallisuus[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

David Irving (2003)

Itseoppineen Irvingin historiankerronnasta poikkeavat näkemykset toisesta maailmansodasta, Adolf Hitleristä ja holokaustista ovat tuoneet hänelle ikonin aseman uusnatsien ja muiden holokaustin kieltäjien keskuudessa.lähde? Häntä on puheidensa ja kirjojensa vuoksi estetty astumasta Saksan ja Itävallan maaperälle. Molemmissa valtioissa holokaustin kieltäminen julkisesti on rikos. Häntä on myös estetty menemästä Kanadaan, Australiaan ja Uuteen-Seelantiin.

Lähteet[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

  • Petri Luomanen: David Irving – huijari vai huippututkija? (Vartija 2/2006)

Viitteet[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä]

  1. Irvingin uskottavuus asetetaan kyseenalaiseksi muun muassa seuraavissa lähteissä:
    • "In 1969, after David Irving's support for Rolf Hochhuth, the German playwright who accused Winston Churchill of murdering the Polish wartime leader General Sikorski, The Daily Telegraph issued a memo to all its correspondents. 'It is incorrect,' it said, 'to describe David Irving as a historian. In future we should describe him as an author.'" Ingram, Richard. Irving was the author of his own downfall, The Independent, 25 February 2006.
    • "It may seem an absurd semantic dispute to deny the appellation of ‘historian’ to someone who has written two dozen books or more about historical subjects. But if we mean by historian someone who is concerned to discover the truth about the past, and to give as accurate a representation of it as possible, then Irving is not a historian. Those in the know, indeed, are accustomed to avoid the term altogether when referring to him and use some circumlocution such as ‘historical writer’ instead. Irving is essentially an ideologue who uses history for his own political purposes; he is not primarily concerned with discovering and interpreting what happened in the past, he is concerned merely to give a selective and tendentious account of it in order to further his own ideological ends in the present. The true historian’s primary concern, however, is with the past. That is why, in the end, Irving is not a historian." Irving vs. (1) Lipstadt and (2) Penguin Books, Expert Witness Report by Richard J. Evans FBA, Professor of Modern History, University of Cambridge, 2000, Chapter 6.
    • "State prosecutor Michael Klackl said: 'He's not a historian, he's a falsifier of history.'" Traynor, Ian. Irving jailed for denying Holocaust, The Guardian, February 21, 2006.
    • "One of Britain's most prominent speakers on Muslim issues is today exposed as a supporter of David Irving... Bukhari contacted the discredited historian, sentenced this year to three years in an Austrian prison for Holocaust denial, after reading his website." Doward, Jamie. "Muslim leader sent funds to Irving", The Guardian, November 19, 2006.
    • "David Irving, the discredited historian and Nazi apologist, was last night starting a three-year prison sentence in Vienna for denying the Holocaust and the gas chambers of Auschwitz." Traynor, Ian. "Irving jailed for denying Holocaust", The Guardian, February 21, 2006.
    • "DAVID Irving, the discredited revisionist historian and most outspoken British Holocaust denier, has added further fuel to the controversy over his early release from an Austrian jail by recanting his court statement of regret over his views." Crichton, Torcuil. "Holocaust denier reneges on regret", The Sunday Herald, December 24, 2006.
    • "Discredited British author David Irving spoke in front of some 250 people at a small theatre on Szabadság tér last Monday." Hodgson, Robert. "Holocaust denier David Irving draws a friendly crowd in Budapest", The Budapest Times, March 19, 2007.
    • "An account of the 2000 - 2001 libel trial in the high court of the now discredited historian David Irving, which formed the backdrop for his recent conviction in Vienna for denying the Holocaust." Program Details - David Irving: The London Trial 2006-02-26 17:00:00, BBC Radio 4.
    • "Yet Irving, a discredited right-wing historian, was described by a High Court judge after a long libel trial as a racist anti-semite who denied the Holocaust." Edwards, Rob. "Anti-green activist in links with Nazi writer; Revealed: campaigner", The Sunday Herald, May 5, 2002.
    • "'The sentence against Irving confirms that he and his views are discredited, but as a general rule I don’t think that this is the way this should be dealt with,' said Antony Lerman, director of the London-based Institute for Jewish Policy Research. 'It is better to combat denial by education and using good speech to drive out bad speech.'" Gruber, Ruth Ellen. "Jail sentence for Holocaust denier spurs debate on free speech", j., February 24, 2006.
    • "Deborah Lipstadt is Dorot Professor of Modern Jewish and Holocaust Studies and director of The Rabbi Donald A. Tam Institute for Jewish Studies at Emory University. She is the author of two books about the Holocaust. Her book Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory led to the 2000 court case in which she defeated and discredited Holocaust denier David Irving." Understanding Auschwitz Today, Task of Justice & Danger of Holocaust Deniers, Public Broadcasting Service.
    • "After the discredited British historian David Irving was sentenced to a three-year jail term in Austria as a penalty for denying the Holocaust, the liberal conscience of western Europe has squirmed and agonised." Glover, Gillian. "Irving gets just what he wanted - his name in the headlines", The Scotsman, February 23, 2006.
    • "...is a disciple of discredited historian and Holocaust denier David Irving." Horowitz, David. The Professors: The 101 Most Dangerous Academics in America, Regnery Publishing, 2006, ISBN 0-89526-003-4, p. 175.
    • "If the case for competence applies to those who lack specialist knowledge, it applies even further to those who have been discredited as incompetent. For example, why ought we include David Irving in a debate aiming to establish the truth about the Holocaust, after a court has found that he manipulates and misinterprets history?" Long, Graham. Relativism and the Foundations of Liberalism, Imprint Academic, 2004, ISBN 1-84540-004-6, p. 80.
    • "Ironically, Julius is also a celebrated solicitor famous for his defence of Schuchard's colleague, Deborah Lipstadt, against the suit for of libel brought by the discredited historian David Irving brought when Lipstadt accused him of denying the Holocaust." "T S Eliot's anti-Semitism hotly debated as scholars argue over new evidence", University of York, Communications Office, February 5, 2003.
    • "Irving, a discredited historian, has insisted that Jews at Auschwitz were not gassed." "Irving vows to continue denial", Breaking News, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 7, 2007.
    • "David Irving, the discredited historian and Nazi apologist, was on Monday night starting a three-year prison sentence in Vienna for denying the Holocaust and the gas chambers of Auschwitz." "Historian jailed for denying Holocaust", Mail & Guardian, February 21, 2006.
    • "Irving, a discredited historian, has insisted that Jews at Auschwitz were not gassed." "Irving Vows To Continue Denial", The Jewish Week, December 29, 2006.
    • "The two best-known present-day Holocaust deniers are the discredited historian David Irving, jailed last year in Austria for the offence, and the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who wants Israel wiped off the map." Wills, Clair. " Ben Kiely and the 'Holocaust denial'", Irish Independent, March 10, 2007.
    • "[Irving] claimed that Lipstadt's book accuses him of falsifying historical facts in order to support his theory that the Holocaust never happened. This of course discredited his reputation as a historian... On April 11, High Court judge Charles Gray ruled against Irving, concluding that he indeed qualified as a Holocaust denier and anti-Semite and that as such he has distorted history in order to defend his hero, Adolf Hitler." Wyden, Peter. The Hitler Virus: the Insidious Legacy of Adolf Hitler, Arcade Publishing, 2001, ISBN 1-55970-532-9, p. 164.
    • "Now that holocaust denier David Irving has been discredited, what is the future of history?" Kustow, Michael. "History after Irving", Red Pepper, June, 2000.
    • "In Britain, which does not have a Holocaust denial law, Irving had already been thoroughly discredited when he unsuccessfully sued historian Deborah Lipstadt in 1998 for describing him as a Holocaust denier." Callamard, Agnès. "Debate: can we say what we want?", Le Monde diplomatique, April, 2007.
    • "Holocaust denier and discredited British historian David Irving, for example, asserts... that Auschwitz gas chambers were constructed after World War II." "Hate-Group Web Sites Target Children, Teens", Psychiatric News, American Psychiatric Association, February 2, 2001.
    • "Holocaust denier: An Austrian court hears discredited British historian David Irving's appeal against his jail sentence for denying the Nazi genocide of the Jews.", "The world this week", BBC News, December 20, 2006.
    • "DISCREDITED British historian David Irving began serving three years in an Austrian prison yesterday for denying the Holocaust, a crime in the country where Hitler was born." Schofield, Matthew. "Controversial Nazi apologist backs down, but still jailed for three years", The Age, February 22, 2006.
  2. How 'Holocaust denier' fought and los BBC
  3. [1]

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